▶ How is Malaria caused?
An age old infection which was first discovered in Africa. It is caused by the parasitic protozoa Plasmodium. The varieties of the Plasmodium species that cause malaria in human beings are- Plasmodium Vivax, Plasmodium Ovale and Plasmodium Falciparum. This disease is known to be transmitted by infected female Anopheles mosquito. Malaria is characterized by high fever and chills. Antimalarial medications are available. However, nowadays, resistant strains of plasmodium have emerged which are causing a big problem.
Statistics: The World Health Organization has estimated that in 2012, 207 million cases of malaria were recorded world over and around 627,000 deaths occurred due to this infection. According to Centre of Disease Control, around 1500-2000 cases of malaria are recorded every year in the United States. The National Vector Borne Disease Control Program of India reported around 1.06 million cases and nearly 519 malaria deaths in 2012.
Geographical Distribution: Malarial Infection is prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas which have high humidity.The highest transmission is found in southern parts of the Sahara and in parts of Oceania such as Papua New Guinea.
▶ What are the causes of Chikungunya?
It is an infection caused by Chikungunya virus which is transmitted by Aedesaegypti and Aedesalbopictusmosquitoes. ‘Joint pain’ is the most debilitating symptom associated with this condition. Till now, no definite cure for this infection has been identified. The Chikungunya outbreak was first identified in Tanzania.
Statistics: A major outbreak of chikungunya epidemic occurred in the Indian Ocean at 2005. From this time, countries such as India, Indonesia, Thailand, Maldives and Myanmar have reported over 1.9 million cases of chikungunya infection.
Geographical Distribution: The earlier chikungunya outbreaks have occurred in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In late 2013, chikungunya virus was also identified in Caribbean islands and territories in America.
▶ What are the symptoms of Dengue?
A very common mosquito borne viral infection. It is caused by dengue viruses- DENV 1, DENV 2, DENV 3, DENV 4. The mosquito species which transmit dengue viruses are Aedesaegypti and Aedesalbopictus. Dengue virus can cause mild condition such as dengue fever or a much serious infection referred to as dengue hemorrhagic fever. This infection is characterized by fever, headache, muscle and joint pains. People with this infection also exhibit skin rashes which is similar to measles rash. No specific cure has been identified for this infection.
Statistics: According to WHO, there are around 50–100 million dengue infections reported worldwide every year out of which there are 500,000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever and 22,000 deaths, mostly among children. In the year 2012,India had recorded 35,066 dengue cases and 216 deaths due to dengue infection. (WHO, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs117/en/)
Geographical Distribution: Before 1970’s, there were only 9 countries where severe dengue epidemics were identified. Nowadays, this infection has become endemic in more than 100 countries in Africa, the Americas, the Eastern Mediterranean, South-east Asia and the Western Pacific. The American, South-east Asia and the Western Pacific regions are the most seriously affected areas.
▶ What is Yellow fever?
It is commonly known as yellow plague. This infection is carried by flavivirus and is transmitted by female mosquito species- the Aedes and Haemogogus. It is a life threatening infection and it has been estimated that 50% of patients with yellow fever who do not take proper treatment eventually die. This condition is characterized by abdominal pain and liver damage. The yellow fever vaccine is available world over. However, its cure has not been identified as yet.
Statistics: According to World Health Organization, around 200,000 cases of yellow fever and 30,000 deaths are identified every year all over the world. 90% of yellow fever cases are identified in Africa. (HO, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs117/en/)
Geographical Distribution: Yellow fever is endemic and confined to areas such as Africa and Latin America.
▶ What is Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE)?
PIt is a life threatening mosquito borne infection caused by EEE virus. It is transmitted by the mosquito species - Culisetamelanura and Culisetamorsitans. This infection is characterized by inflammation of brain. About 1/3rd of the patients diagnosed with this infection have died. No specific vaccine or medication has been found for this infection.
Statistics- This infection is found rare. However, every year around 5-10 cases of EEE are reported in the United States. (CDC, http://www.cdc.gov/EasternEquineEncephalitis/gen/qa.html)
Geographical Distribution- Most cases have been identified in the Atlantic and the Gulf coast states in the United States. This infection occurs primarily in during late springs and early fall.
▶ What is St. Louis Encephalitis?
It is a rare infection caused by a virus belonging to the flaviviridae subgroup. This infection is transmitted by Mansoniapseudotitillans mosquito. This infection causes serious illness by primarily affecting the brain. No specific treatment for this infection has been identified.
Statistics-According to the CDC, around 102 cases of this infection are reported every year in the United States. (CDC, http://www.cdc.gov/EasternEquineEncephalitis/gen/qa.html)
Geographical Distribution- The condition has been reported in almost every state in the United States. However, most cases has been reported from eastern and central states of United States.
▶ What is West Nile encephalitis?
West Nile virus(WNV) is an arbovirus belonging to flaviviridae family which is transmitted by mosquitoes which belong to the Culex subclass. This virus causes a wide spectrum of illnesses ranging from fever to life threatening encephalitis. A definite treatment for prevention or cure of this infection is not yet known.
Geographical Distribution- WNV is commonly found in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, North America and West Asia.
You will find that most of the diseases listed above do not have a definite vaccine or a treatment. Nevertheless, prevention is always better than cure. So, in order to safeguard yourself against these deadly infections is to ensure that the tiny monstrous mosquitoes do not bite you.
▶ What are the ingredients of Jungle Magic Mosquito Banditz?
The Jungle Magic Mosquito Banditz contains citronella oil, which is 100 % natural and chemical free. It is extracted from the citronella plant. It has good aroma and used as perfume initially. During 20th century, Indian army used it as a mosquito repellent1.
▶ How does citronella protect us from mosquitoes?
You might have read in your 7th standard biology that female mosquitoes bites us and sucks our blood whereas, male mosquitoes suck plant juices. Have you ever thought, “Why female mosquitoes suck the blood of humans but does not suck plant juices?”
We have sweat glands in our body. These glands produce sweat when we have pain or when we do exercise or when we are stress2. The sweat helps to regulate our body temperature. Sweat contains fluids, proteins, carbon dioxide, lactic acid and other waste products. These all substances together gives a characteristic odor to the sweat. The female mosquitoes get attracted to this characteristic odor of the sweat. They have sensors in their antenna that can recognise odor of the lactic acid present in the sweat due to which they land up on our body and pierce their sharp straws and sucks our blood3.
Citronella oil has pleasant fragrance that masks our body odor and citronella protects us from mosquitoes.
A study was conducted to evaluate the mosquito repellent efficacy of different 38 essential oils and has been found that citronella is most effective than all4.
▶ Why Jungle Magic Mosquito Banditz is safer than other products available in the market?
Most of the mosquito repellents available in the market contain n, n-diethyl-m-toluamide( DEET). It destroys the sensors present on the mosquito’s antennae and reduces the ability of the mosquitoes to identify humans. However, it is evident from many studies that DEET causes severe adverse effects in children, adults and pregnant women5.
▶ What are the adverse effects of DEET in adults?
- It has been found that ingestion of DEET has resulted in hypotension (low blood pressure), seizures and coma within 1 hour.
- DEET interacts with the antipsychotic medications and causes toxic effects
- DEET causes psychosis. A 70% of individuals who have applied ointments and creams containing DEET are suffering from psychotic disorders.
- DEET has also causes damage to the eye, angioedema and generalized pruritius (a type of disease).
▶ What are the adverse effects of DEET in Children?
- DEET causes seizures (Convulsions) and various skin diseases
Adverse effects of DEET in Pregnant women:
- Low birth weight of the newborn
- Toxic effects on mother on frequent use
Citronella oil, the active ingredient of Jungle Magic Mosquito Banditz is 100 % safe. It not only protects us from mosquitoes but also reduces anxiety and provides relaxation. It is used as anticonvulsant medication to reduce seizures6.
▶ How long can Jungle Magic Mosquito Banditz keep away the mosquito?
The Jungle Magic Mosquito Banditzare coated with citronella oil and they also contain a compartment in which the citronella oil is stored. The studies have shown that a single application of citronella protects us from mosquito for 2 hours. The Jungle Magic Mosquito Banditz contains citronella oil in a compartment being a volatile liquid it slowly escapes from the holes made on the compartment and gives continuous protection to the child. So, your child would be protected from mosquitoes as long as the band in on your child’s wrist or ankle.
Jungle Magic Mosquito Banditzis not one time use product. Each pack of Jungle Magic Mosquito Banditz protects your child from mosquitoes for 30 days. The effectiveness of the product will not decrease with time. It will have same effectiveness for 30 days.
▶ How to use Jungle Magic Mosquito Banditz ?
TheJungle Magic Mosquito Banditzare made of silicon which is water proof and antiallergic. It contains a compartment that stores citronella oil. Make holes on the compartment to obtain the desire effect. It should be worn either on your child’s ankle or on the wrist. If many mosquitoes are these near your surrounding, make sure that your child wears one band on the ankle and the other on wrist for better protection. These bands can also be worn while sleeping. They do not cause any injury to your child and protects your child from mosquitoes during sleep. They are 100% safe and natural. They do not cause any side effects in children. They provide a soothing effect due a pleasant odour.
▶ What would you find in the pack?
Each pack contains two Jungle Magic Mosquito Banditz. Each band gives protection for 15 days so, a pack of Jungle Magic Mosquito Banditz would give protection for 30 days. These packs come with airtight pouches when your child is not wearing the band store it in pouch for long use. If the pack is stored as per the instructions, it will give a month’s protection to your child.
▶ What is the prevention of Mosquito Borne Diseases?
1. Clear the rainwater collected in empty objects:
Mosquitoes lay egg in the stagnant water especially in rain season. So, to reduce the population of the mosquitoes clear the rain water collected in empty tubs, tubes and pots.
2. Cover water tanks and other containers with lids:
Mosquitoes not only lay eggs in rainwater but also in the tap water and water of ponds and swimming pool. So, cover the water tanks and other containers with the lid to avoid the breeding of mosquitoes. If you are using an air cooler, change the water for every two days.
3. Avoid standing near a pond or standing water:
As said earlier mosquitoes lay eggs in ponds and standing water you can find a large number of mosquitoes in and around them. These mosquitoes can attack you and suck all your blood leaving behind infection causing microorganisms in your blood. So, avoid hanging out and standing near a pond or standing water.
4. Try to avoid staying out for long time after sunset and before sunrise:
Mosquitoes are very active between the sunset and sunrise so, if your do not want to be a prey for mosquitoes try to avoid staying out between dusk and dawn. In case you have to stay out during this period, prefer to wear long selves and completely cover your body.
5. Avoid using perfumes that have fragrance of flowers:
Mosquitoes get attracted to the fragrance of nectar as that of the human sweat so; avoid using perfumes that have fragrance of flowers.
6. Spray neem oil around your surroundings:
Neem has insecticidal properties and would kill the mosquitoes so, dilute need oil one tablespoon of neem oil in a bucket full of water and spray in and around your home.
7. Spray kerosene in the nearby pond and stagnant water:
Kerosene forms a layer on the stagnant water in the ponds and digs. It does not allow the oxygen to dissolve in the water. Due to this, the mosquito’s larvae cannot breathe and would die.
8. Place a mosquito net over your bed before going to sleep:
Mosquito net has very tiny holes that allow only air to pass through them. It does not allow the mosquitoes to pass through them or to reach you. It is an effective method to protect ourselves from mosquitoes.
While buying a mosquito net, make sure that the size of the holes is small enough to keep the mosquitoes out and large enough to allow the breeze of air. Do not sleep on the sides of the bed as the mosquitoes can pierce their sting into your body through the net.
9. Use a medicated bed net to cover your bed and windows:
World Health Organization has recommended that using medicated mosquito nets are more beneficial than the non medicated mosquito nets.
Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of K-O (25% deltamethrin) as insecticides. It is available in the market with the brand name K-Othrine.
K-O (25% deltamethrin) is soluble in water and it shows its effect upto12 months. It effect is not lost even after three washes of the net.
10. Use mosquito traps:
The sensors present on the mosquito’s antennae detect the carbondioxide released from our lungs, lactic acid present in our sweat and the maxillary palpus present on the mosquito’s head is sensitive to heat. These organs of the mosquito help it to find the humans for sucking the blood.
The mosquito traps contain available in the markets contains one or more systems that help to attract and trap the mosquitoes. Carbondioxide system and heat system are some of the features present in a mosquito trap.
Mosquito traps work on electricity they do not liberate ant harmful chemicals and are safe to use.
11. Use electric mosquito zappers to kill the mosquitoes:
It has been found that mosquitoes get attracted to yellow light. The electric mosquito zapper emits a yellow light to attract the mosquito and when these bugs land on the zappers, it kills them by an electric charge.
12. Use mosquito magnets to kill the mosquitoes:
The mosquito magnets contain octenol. It is a natural product obtained from the plants and attracts mosquitoes. The mosquitoemagents also liberate carbondioxide and heat to lure the mosquitoes. When the mosquitoes reach the magnet they are trapped in a net and die due to dehydration.
13. Use mosquito coils for killing mosquitoes:
Mosquitoes contain insecticides. When you lit coil they fill the air around your surrounding with insecticides and kills mosquitoes.
But... due to the smoke created by them you may have difficulty in breathing and frequent use can cause respiratory problems.
14. Apply mosquito repellents before going out:
Now- a- days mosquito repellents are available in the market, they help us to protect ourselves from mosquitoes. These products are available in different forms such as creams, ointments, lotions, sprays and bands. Currently most of the mosquito repellents contain N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) while some products are made from the extracts of herbs that have mosquito repellent properties.
1. Marta Ferreira Maia* and Sarah J Moore. Plant-based insect repellents: a review of their efficacy, development and testing, Malaria Journal, 2011; 10(Suppl 1): S11 (PubMed)
2. Unilever. TerlemeileilgiliGerçekler
3. Elissa AH, Nicole FA, Laurence J and John R. "Olfaction: Mosquito receptor for human-sweat odorant". Nature. 2004;427(6971): 212–213
4. Trongtokit Y, Rongsriyan Y, Komalamisra N et al. (1995). Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites, Phytother Res. 19(4): 303-309
5. Gideon Koren, Doreen Matsui, Benoit Bailey. DEET-based insect repellents: safety implications for children and pregnant and lactating women, www.cmaj.ca on July 15, 2003
6. Almeida, R.N., Motta, S.C., Leite, J.R. (2003): Properties of essential oil as anticonvulsants. Bol.